Vol 8, No 1 (2023)

Table of Contents


by Paola Magnano
77 Views, 49 PDF Downloads

This issue (Volume 8 Issue 1 of Environment and Social Psychology) covers articles about the environment and human social conditions by scholars from all over the world, most of which are original research articles. Readers can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mutual influence between psychology, environment, and society. The articles in this issue can be divided into several major categories: society, education, psychology, learning, literature, and family and parent-child relationships. For example, at the social level, Hak-Seon Kim et al.[1] used big data analysis to compare online customer reviews of Macau integrated resorts, and based this on the keywords that affect their reputation, and thus put forward corresponding decision-making suggestions. In a similar vein is research on the relationship between the hotel workplace and individual psychology. Acharya and Datta[2] conducted a study to determine the relationship between workplace dignity, organizational commitment and employee resignation intention in hotels. At the same time, with the widespread popularity of online social media, many young people like to post about their lives on it, and subsequently, the posting rate of alcohol-related posts has become more frequent. A study in this issue compared the intentions of young people in the United States and South Korea in posting alcohol-related posts and the related emotional contagion after the posts were posted[3]. In addition, this issue also provides relevant research articles on smallholder plantations in Malaysia, systematically identifies the challenges and issues faced by smallholder plantations in Malaysia and provides stake-holders with insights into the issues that need to be paid attention to in developing the industry[4].

On a psychological level, during the COVID-19 epidemic, not only has the global economic situation been impacted, people’s physical health has been threatened, but also serious psychological problems related to the epidemic, including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. and other mental sequelae. A research article in this issue examines the psychological conditions, such as emotional exhaustion, of people during and before and after the epidemic, including key workers and both infected and uninfected people. Zammitti[5], a scholar from Italy, and others used a scale to evaluate the mental, physical and psychological fatigue symptoms that may be caused by COVID-19. The table includes different types of fatigue (physical, emotional, and mental) and several factors involved in these types of fatigue. The research provides a deeper insight into people’s emotional state during the COVID-19 pandemic, as the health emergency and subsequent restrictive measures taken by governments to contain the epidemic brought unexpected, rapid, and fundamental changes to people’s lives, triggering experiences of fear, uncertainty, and anxiety. Fear of the virus and a complex combination of stressors may further contribute to emotional exhaustion. The findings of Zammitti et al.[5] provide a new, brief, psychometrically reliable and valid method to measure emotional exhaustion caused by COVID-19, which is easy to administer and can be used to briefly assess coping with the pandemic. The prevailing mental state, thereby distinguishing between mental exhaustion and physical and emotional exhaustion. The COVID-19 Exhaustion Scale can be used to screen for emotional symptoms to identify the most dangerous situations and develop interventions to mitigate the social, economic and personal costs associated with exhaustion from COVID-19. At the same time, there are also scholars from Turkey[6] who have studied the verification of Psy-Flex Scale in Turkey and the relationship between psychological flexibility, resilience and social support. This verification is a cross-cultural verification measure so that it can be used internationally. A more comprehensive and complete application of Psy-Flex Scale.

At the education and learning level, three research articles in this issue explore LGBTIQ+ topics, social cognitive theory and distance learning methods respectively. Among them, Huertas-Abril and Palacios-Hidalgo[7] used structured interviews to understand the attitudes of 89 in-service teachers around the world towards the introduction of LGBTIQ+ in education. Di et al.[8] studied the application of social cognitive theory in language learning, and the research subjects were some Arabic learners. Kremen et al.[9] used surveys and interviews to study the impact of distance learning methods on the educational process of foreign students integrating into Russian universities.

This issue also uses comparative analysis of intertextuality between non-native literary works, revealing the emotional and social struggles suffered by marginalized, despised and rejected social groups[10]. At the same time, the parent-child relationship is also a topic worth noting. This issue uses the perspectives of parents and children on electronic games as an entry point to explore the relationship between electronic games, children and parents, and provides parents with corresponding solutions and strategies to help parents view their children’s exposure to video games more ration-ally and ease conflicts between parents and children[11]. Readers can understand that in modern society, although society’s attitude towards video games has become more rational and tolerant, many parents still have a negative attitude towards their children’s exposure to games, and this state will not be completely eradicated in a short time. Therefore, this research will help the public understand the root causes of parent-child relationship conflicts and how to improve family relationships, which is more conducive to the growth of children’s mental health and can also improve parents’ psycho-logical stress.

We are looking forward to providing our readers with more comprehensive and professional in-sights into psychology and the human condition.


Conflict of interest

The author declare no conflict of interest.

Research Articles

by Andrea Zammitti, Rita Zarbo, Angela Russo, Paola Magnano
551 Views, 219 PDF Downloads

The aim of this study was providing a validated scale in the Italian context, for the assessment of the symptoms of mental, physical, and psychological exhaustion that can result from thinking about COVID-19, starting from Burnout Measure of Pines and Aronson. Four studies were conducted. In Study 1, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis. A 2-factor factorial structure—Mental Exhaustion (ME) and Physical and Emotional Exhaustion (PEE)—was shown. In Study 2, we tested the structure of COVID-19 Exhaustion Scale. The two-factor structure with 8 items was the best factorial solution. In Study 3, we tested the concurrent validity of the COVID-19 Exhaustion Scale. The two dimensions were significantly and positively related to physical symptoms and negatively related to life satisfaction. In Study 4, we showed the stability of the COVID-19 Exhaustion Scale using the test-retest method after 3 weeks.

Research Articles

by Murat Yildirim, Izaddin Ahmad Aziz
443 Views, 273 PDF Downloads
Psychological flexibility is an important psychological factor influencing various individual and relational outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of evidence about cross-culturally validated measures available. The aim of the present study was to assess the Turkish validation of the Psy-Flex Scale, which is a new and recently developed measure of this construct and test its relationship with resilience and social support. The sample comprised 516 adults (52.3% males) with an age range of 18–60 years (M = 27.08, SD = 8.53). Results showed that the measure had good construct validity with high internal consistency reliability. The findings also demonstrated that psychological flexibility was positively associated with resilience and social support. Additionally, social support partially mediated the relationship between resilience and psychological flexibility. These results suggest that the Psy-Flex Scale is a reliable and valid tool to measure psychological flexibility in the Turkish cultural context. Intervention programs focusing on social support can also be tailored to promote psychological flexibility by cultivating resilience.

Research Articles

by Shuting Tao, Mengke Jia, Xiaoyu Jin
373 Views, 137 PDF Downloads

With the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy and the promotion of the sharing economy, the boom of the domestic B&B industry has set off and the B&B industry has entered a period of explosive growth. The prosperity of the B&B market has attracted a large number of investors to invest and operate B&Bs, especially small-scale accommodations with low thresholds and small investments. Hence, such mid-/low-end B&Bs occupy the mainstream position in the B&Bs market. Therefore, there is a need to investigate this new phenomenon from different facets and perspectives in the commercial accommodation market, such as tourists, policymakers, community hosts, and stakeholders. Collectively, this study aimed at providing marketing strategies for the future development and expansion of mid-/low-end B&Bs in the Chinese domestic market by analyzing their Strengths (S), Weaknesses (W), Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) as well as SWOT matrix of SO, WO, ST, and WT.

Research Articles

by Cristina A. Huertas-Abril, Francisco Javier Palacios-Hidalgo
454 Views, 224 PDF Downloads
As the protection of the rights and integrity of LGBTIQ+ people seems to be increasing in some parts of the world, discrimination and violence towards them remain a reality in many other contexts. As a result, there is a growing number of initiatives for making education LGBTIQ+-inclusive in order to enhance educational inclusiveness and train fully prepared democratic citizens. However, research is still limited when examining the perceptions of in-service teachers regarding the appropriateness of addressing topics connected to gender identity and diversity and the reality of the LGBTIQ+ community in their lessons and their training to do so. By using a structured interview distributed online, this qualitative study explores the attitudes of 89 in-service teachers from all around the world regarding the introduction of these issues in education. Findings show that, in general, participants agree with the relevance of these issues but highlight that their sensitive nature needs to be considered. Moreover, there seems to be a lack of training in this respect, which would be appreciated. Ultimately, this article intends to expand both research and reflection on the importance of making education LGBTIQ+-inclusive as a means to promote educational inclusiveness and the training of democratic citizens of tomorrow.

Research Articles

by Mohammed Ahmed Abou Adel
255 Views, 107 PDF Downloads
This study aims to know The Bookseller’s Notebooks intersects with The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Oedipus Rex. We analyze the novelist’s proficiency at expressing contemporary human issues innovatively and artistically, focusing on the emotional struggle between parents and children. In particular, the study sheds light on the emotional and social struggles suffered by a marginalized, despised, and rejected societal group, namely illegitimate children (foundlings). The study’s findings suggest that more comparative studies of intertextuality between non-local works of literature should be attempted. This way, literature and literary criticism may enhance our understanding of other’s cultures to facilitate acceptance and peaceful coexistence.

Research Articles

by Xuan Di, Wail Muin Ismail, Muhammad Azhar Zailani, Ruihua Li
284 Views, 225 PDF Downloads
Social cognitive theory (SCT) has widely been used in second or foreign language learning. Multiple studies have also verified its importance in language learning. This present study examines the role that SCT plays in assisting the learning of Arabic by analysing the relationships among self-regulated learning strategies (SRLS), social media usage (SMU), and motivations of Arabic learners. A total of 317 university-grade Arabic learners participated in the present study. The self-regulated online learning questionnaire (SOL-Q), a social media usage questionnaire, and the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) were used to understand the current issues that Arabic learners face. A quantitative analysis of the data revealed that most of the Arabic learners had medium levels of SRLS and SMU and high levels of motivation. Furthermore, SRLS and motivation significantly affected the Grade Point Average (GPA)-based academic achievements of these Arabic learners. The findings of this study verify that SRLS, SMU, and motivation have a triadic reciprocal correlation with SCT in the context of learning the Arabic language.

Research Articles

by Mengying Tang, Xiaobin Zhang, Jue Wang, Hak-Seon Kim
520 Views, 241 PDF Downloads

Integrated resorts, an important business card for Macao’s tourism industry, has attracted many tourists and become an important economic pillar. Customer reviews posted on the Internet are an important reflection of the online reputation of integrated resorts and can directly affect performance. Thus, integrated resort operators and destination managers need to develop business strategies by knowing key influencing factors in online reputation of Macao’s integrated resorts. In this study, 13,282 customer reviews were collected from the top five Macao integrated resorts in terms of number of reviews on Google Travel. Through cluster analysis, nighty-nine keywords with the highest frequency were divided into four clusters: “entertainment”, “experience”, “facilities”, and “atmosphere”. The results of factor analysis classified fifteen keywords into four groups: “consumption”, “room service”, “transportation”, and “entertainment”. Finally, the results of the linear regression analysis indicated that “consumption”, “room service”, and “entertainment” had a significant positive effect on online reputation, while “transportation” had a non-significant negative effect. This study enriches the research on the online reputation of integrated resorts by using big data technology and puts forward decision-making suggestions to stakeholders on the key influencing factors in online reputation based on the data analysis results and the findings of related studies. 

Research Articles

by Asha Acharya, Amit Datta
267 Views, 177 PDF Downloads
Purpose: To determine the structural relationship between hospitality workplace dignity, organisational commitment, and intent to quit, and further to evaluate the mediating effect of organisational commitment on hospitality workplace dignity and intent to quit special in the Hotel Industry. Design/methodology/approach: The study is quantitative in nature with empirical evidence associated with it. A total of 250 employees working in luxury hotels in Jaipur are considered for the study. Data is collected from the respondents based on quota and convenience sampling and is analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. Findings: The results from the exploratory factor analysis conducted extracted four factors namely—recognition at workplace (RW), barriers to workplace dignity (BWPD), organisational commitment (OC) and intention to quit (INQ). Both the structural and measurement models generate a good fit and significant association between RW and INQ; while the influence of BWPD on INQ is not significant and OC fully mediates the relationship. OC partially mediates the relationship between RW and INQ. The analysis is conducted in two stages. The first stage enquires the mediating relationship of OC on the relationship between RW and INQ; the second stage corresponds to measuring the mediating effect of BPWD and INQ. The path from BWPD to OC and OC to INQ is seen to be statistically significant. This states that the variable of OC does have a fully mediating role among these two variables. Originality: The study attempts to find the influence of workplace dignity on intention to quit amongst employees in a highly acclaimed tourist destination in a developing nation while measuring the mediating role of organisational commitment.

Research Articles

by Sergey A. Kremen, Faina M. Kremen, Kseniya P. Tsitsikashvili
355 Views, 228 PDF Downloads

The study aims to examine the integration of foreign students who are studying in a distance learning format into the educational process of a Russian university. A mixed-methods approach, involving quantitative data collection (survey and data analysis) and qualitative methods (interviews), was used. Data analysis was conducted using inferential statistics. The study included 103 first-year foreign freshman students (from Uzbekistan, China, Haiti, and Sri Lanka) who were studying remotely at Smolensk State University. The authors identified four interrelated elements of educational integration: technological, academic, sociocultural, and psychological. The combination of their indicators (mastery of the distance learning platform, need for university support, academic performance, proficiency in the Russian language, sociocultural adaptation, satisfaction with learning, etc.) generally demonstrates the successful integration of foreign students into the educational process, while also revealing some differences among representatives of different countries. It was also found that the distance learning format does not significantly reduce the impact of sociocultural integration on academic performance: language and cultural difficulties can negatively affect academic performance. In turn, experience in distance learning, good proficiency in Russian, completion of the curriculum, and participation in activities that develop intercultural competencies ensure successful educational integration.

Research Articles

by Biao Gao, Feiyu Liao, Huiqin Xie
330 Views, 308 PDF Downloads
This study aims to explore the relationship between electronic games, children, and parents, as well as the issue of parental prejudice towards games. While society’s attitude towards electronic games has become more rational and inclusive, many parents still hold a negative attitude toward their children’s exposure to games. Existing literature focuses more on studying games addiction behavior or its characteristics, neglecting society’s deep-seated contradictions. Therefore, this study starts with the characteristics and needs of electronic games, children, and parents and first applies the concept of expectation bias to analyze and explain the contradictions between parents, children, and games. The needs of parents and children have given rise to their respective expectations for electronic games. Still, due to their misunderstandings about games, there has been a deviation in expectations, leading to conflicts between parents and children. Based on the conclusion, this study aims to help parents view their children’s exposure to electronic games more rationally and provide corresponding solutions and strategies.

Research Articles

by Jee Yun Park, Wufan Jia, Hye-Eun Lee
175 Views, 100 PDF Downloads
Given the increase in problems arising from young people more frequently posting alcohol use on social media, this research aims to elucidate which factors influence such behavior. Additionally, this study examines the impact of alcohol-related cognitions on posting behavior. The final aim is to discover cross-cultural differences between the US and Korea. An online experiment was conducted as a 2 (photo-type: alcohol focus versus alcohol-in-use) × 2 (alcohol type: beer versus wine) × 2 (culture: American versus Korean) between-subject design with 203 American and 233 Korean young adults. Results showed that alcohol-in-use photos generated higher intention to post than alcohol-focused photos and wine photos generated higher intention than beer photos. Also, only Koreans showed a significant effect of alcohol-related cognitions on posting intention. This empirical study suggests that interventions aimed at decreasing problems that result from alcohol-related postings might benefit from emphasizing photos depicting people with alcohol (alcohol-in-use), especially when it comes to wine photos. In addition, culture-specific intervention programs can be designed based on the results of this study.

Review Articles

by Norhasni Zainal Abiddin, Mohd Fauzi Mohd Ghazali, Shahrul Izad Yahya, Norazlan Jantan, Nabila Husna Abdul Halim
439 Views, 413 PDF Downloads
This systematic review article focuses on the wellbeing, challenges and issues faced by smallholder plantation farmers in Malaysia. Malaysia’s smallholder plantation farmers come from diverse backgrounds and contribute significantly to the nation’s economy. In spite of this, their plantations are not immune from constraints that influencetheir survival as well as their economic well-being. Additionally, several reports indicate that various effortsand support have been made by stakeholders to improve the situation, but to no avail, since there are still issues and challenges in place despite more than a decade of implementation. Hence, this study aims to systematically identify these challenges and issues faced by the smallholder plantation farmers in Malaysia. Through four steps of systematic review process, 23 related articles from 2010–2022 were analyzed. Eight categories have been identifiedto be the challenges faced by the smallholder plantation farmers and were grouped into two differentcategories. The categories and subcategories namely formal challenges include quality of government aid, unresolved land ownership issue among the smallholders, unstable market price and harming of environmental sustainability and the informal challenges include reluctant of young generation in smallholding plantation, lack of related knowledge in plantation, lack of finance stabilityand cultivation issues. With two main categories, the challenges and issues have been more clarifiedand seemlier manageable for their wellbeing. Furthermore, a number of recommendations were mentioned in this study for future research.