Open Journal Systems

Analysis of discursive patterns for curricular contextualization

Richar Jacobo Posso-Pacheco, María Gladys Cóndor-Chicaiza, Jannet del Rocío Cóndor-Chicaiza, Bertha Susana Paz-Viteri, Victor Arufe Giráldez, Alberto Sanmiguel-Rodríguez, Norma Amabilia Ortiz Bravo

Article ID: 2133
Vol 9, Issue 6, 2024, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 124 (Abstract) 34 (PDF)


With the application of remote education due to the pandemic, Ecuadorian teachers contextualized the curriculum to the needs of their students. The objective was to analyse emerging dialogue patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on teachers’ experiences and stories about their interaction with their students. The research was qualitative in which the method of indirect observation of the transcription of 73 semi-structured interviews with teachers from educational institutions in Ecuador was applied through the Zoom platform. To analyze the results, they were categorized and conceptualized following the triple pattern of dialogue and discourse proposed by Mehan in its three dimensions: initiation, response and evaluation. Three phases were established: construction of the final indirect observation instrument; quality control of the information so that there is no subjectivity through the agreement of the criteria of three research authors; and the interpretation of indirect observation through contextualization by curricular contents, methodological strategies and didactic resources. It is revealed that teachers demonstrated remarkable adaptation during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on emotional containment and creativity.


contextualization; curriculum; equity; learning; COVID-19

Full Text:



1. León Quinapallo XP, Ortiz Bravo NA, Curriculum of compulsory education levels: a reflective view from the teacher's point of view (Spanish). Revista EDUCARE-UPEL-IPB-Segunda Nueva Etapa 20. 2020, 24(1): 270–280. doi: 10.46498/reduipb.v24i1.1246

2. Posso-Pacheco RJ, Barba-Miranda LC, Rodríguez-Torres ÁF, et al. Active micro-curricular learning model: A classroom planning guide for Physical Education (Spanish). Revista Electrónica Educare. 2020, 24(3): 1–18. doi: 10.15359/ree.24-3.14

3. Posso Pacheco RJ, Cóndor Chicaiza MG, Cóndor Chicaiza J del R, et al. Sustainable Environmental Development: a new approach to post-pandemic physical education in Ecuador (Spanish). Revista Venezolana de Gerencia. 2022, 27(28): 464–478. doi: 10.52080/rvgluz.27.98.6

4. Oliveira G, Grenha Teixeira J, Torres A, et al. An exploratory study on the emergency remote education experience of higher education students and teachers during the COVID‐19 pandemic. British Journal of Educational Technology. 2021, 52(4): 1357–1376. doi: 10.1111/bjet.13112

5. Zabalza M. Territory, culture and curricular contextualization (Spanish). Interacções. 2012;8(22):6–33.

6. Martínez JF. Group cognition and swarm cognition in the solution of the traveling agent problem (Spanish). Revista Guillermo de Ockham. 2014, 12(1): 9. doi: 10.21500/22563202.27

7. Posso Pacheco RJ, Pereira Valdez MJ, Paz Viteri BS, et al. Educational management: a key factor in the implementation of the physical education curriculum (Spanish). Revista Venezolana de Gerencia. 2021, 26(5 Edición Especial): 232–247. doi: 10.52080/rvgluz.26.e5.16

8. Posso Pacheco RJ. The role of the teacher in the university context: a post-pandemic vision (Spanish). MENTOR revista de investigación educativa y deportiva. 2022, 1(2): 91–96. doi: 10.56200/mried.v1i2.3357

9. Montes G. Curricular contextualization and reconstruction of teaching practices in multigrade classrooms (Spanish). Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2022).

10. Heckman P, Weissglass J. Contextualized Mathematics Instruction: Moving beyond recent proposals. Learn Math. 1994; 14(1): 29–33.

11. Bakhtin M. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Emerson C, ed. Published online June 21, 1984. doi: 10.5749/j.ctt22727z1

12. Bakhtin M. Speech genres and other late. University of Texas Press; 1986.

13. Wegerif R. Dialogic Education and Technology. Springer US, 2007. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-71142-3

14. Johnstone B. Discourse analysis. Blackwell; 2002.

15. Boyd M, Markarian W. Dialogic teaching and dialogic stance: Moving beyond interactional form. Res Teach Engl. 2015; 49(3): 272–296.

16. Mehan H. Learning Lessons. Harvard University Press, 1979. doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674420106

17. Lee YA. Third turn position in teacher talk: Contingency and the work of teaching. Journal of Pragmatics. 2007, 39(1): 180–206. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.02.004

18. Ministry of Education of Ecuador. Prioritized curriculum with emphasis on communication, mathematics, digital and social-emotional competencies (Spanish). Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2022).

19. Piñero Martín ML, Rivera Machado ME, Esteban Rivera ER. Proceeding of the Qualitative Researcher: Precisions for the Research Process (Spanish). Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2022).

20. Posso Pacheco RJ, Barba Miranda LC. The Influence of Emotional Factors in Meaningful Physical Education (Spanish). MENTOR revista de investigación educativa y deportiva. 2023, 2(5): 179–187. doi: 10.56200/mried.v2i5.5985

21. Anguera MT, Blanco-Villaseñor A, Losada JL, et al. Integration of qualitative and quantitative elements in observational methodology (Spanish). Ámbitos Revista Internacional de Comunicación. 2020, (49): 49–70. doi: 10.12795/ambitos.2020.i49.04

22. Ministry of Education. Curriculum for compulsory education levels (Spanish). Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2022).

23. Paz Maldonado EJ. Ethics in educational research (Spanish). Rev Cienc PEDAGÓGICAS E Innov. 31 de mayo de 2018; 6(1): 45–51.

24. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Elrbaum Associates; 1988.

25. Lungu M. The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. American Journal of Qualitative Research. 2022, 6(1): 232–237. doi: 10.29333/ajqr/12085

26. Anguera MT, Blanco-Villaseñor A, Losada JL, et al. Guidelines for the development of papers using observational methodology (Spanish). Anuario de Psicología. 2018, 48(1): 9–17. doi: 10.1016/j.anpsic.2018.02.001

27. Villarreal Arias SP. Student emotional support: a proposal for the post pandemic period (Spanish). MENTOR revista de investigación educativa y deportiva. 2022, 1(1): 43–54. doi: 10.56200/mried.v1i1.2165

28. Cazden C. Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. Heinemann; 2001.

29. Saikko V. Different student-strategies for interactional power in the IRF pattern in an EFL classroom. Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2023).

30. Adoumieh N. The discursive model in writing across the curriculum (Spanish). RECIE Revista Caribeña de Investigación Educativa. 2018, 2(2): 77–93. doi: 10.32541/recie.2018.v2i2.pp77-93

31. Couso D, Pintó R. Content analysis of science teachers' cooperative discourse in contexts of didactic innovation (Spanish). Enseñanza de las Ciencias Revista de investigación y experiencias didácticas. 2009, 27(1): 5–18. doi: 10.5565/rev/ensciencias.3659

32. Lemke J. Aprender a hablar ciencia. Paidós; 1997.

33. MacNeilley LH. Opening dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in the English classroom By Martin Nystrand with Adam Gamoran, Robert Kachur, and Catherine Prendergast. Language. 1998, 74(2): 444–445. doi: 10.1353/lan.1998.0252

34. Wells G, Arauz RM. Dialogue in the Classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences. 2006, 15(3): 379–428. doi: 10.1207/s15327809jls1503_3

35. Montero I. Dialogue: a tool for educational reflection and transformation (Spanish). Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2023).

36. Muhonen H, Pakarinen E, Rasku-Puttonen H, et al. Educational Dialogue and Teacher Occupational Stress in Relation to Student Math Performance. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Published online February 13, 2023: 1–19. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2023.2175240

37. Leal Junior AS, Silva R. The indicators of problematization and contextualization processes in a physics class (Spanish). Revista de Enseñanza de la Física. 2023, 35(1): 119–125. doi: 10.55767/2451.6007.v35.n1.41396

38. Venegas C. Curricular prioritization in the context of pandemic: Opportunity for a new school curriculum in Chile. Foro Educacional. 2021, (37). doi: 10.29344/07180772.37.2855

39. Baeza Duffy P. The Inclusion of Recent Migrant Students in the Chilean School Context: Discursive Construction of Different Social Actors in Five Chilean Public Schools (Spanish). Revista signos. 2023, 56(112): 210–233. doi: 10.4067/s0718-09342023000200210

40. Benítez Hurtado OL, Granda Sivisapa SP. Gamification in mathematics as an empowering tool in teaching work (Spanish). MENTOR revista de investigación educativa y deportiva. 2022, 1(1): 66–81. doi: 10.56200/mried.v1i1.2124

41. Ascorra P, Bilbao M, Cárdenas K, et al. What informs the multi-actor indicator on school coexistence in Chile? A mixed design analysis. Education Policy Analysis Archives. 2022, 30. doi: 10.14507/epaa.30.6873

42. Avila Perozo EF. Hermenéutica : Interpretaciones desde Nietzsche , Heidegger, Gadamer y Ricoeur. MENTOR revista de investigación educativa y deportiva. 2023, 2(5): 562–571. doi: 10.56200/mried.v2i5.6015

(124 Abstract Views, 34 PDF Downloads)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Richar Jacobo Posso-Pacheco, María Gladys Cóndor-Chicaiza, Jannet del Rocío Cóndor-Chicaiza, Bertha Susana Paz-Viteri, Victor Arufe-Giráldez, Alberto Sanmiguel-Rodríguez, Norma Amabilia Ortiz Bravo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.