Open Journal Systems

Perceived military to civilian transition-development of conceptual framework and scale for Ex-servicemen

Anirudh Shidganesh, Ram Manohar Singh

Article ID: 2335
Vol 9, Issue 4, 2024, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 244 (Abstract) 94 (PDF)


Perceived Military to Civilian Transition is the subjective experience of transition from military institution to the civilian institution due to voluntary or involuntary retirement from military service reflected by changes in vocation, social, health and family domains of life. This study aims to develop a psychometric tool for evaluating Perceived Military to Civilian Transition. Three studies were conducted by cross-sectional surveys (Study 1 N = 25, Study 2 N = 82, Study 3 N = 400) using the purposive snowball sampling among Ex-Servicemen in India. Study 1–16 Items were generated on 5-point rating scale. Study 2-Items were reduced to 9, based on psychometric scrutiny. First order EFA reveals three latent factors reflecting changes in vocation and health (3 items), family (2 items), and social domain (4 items). Second order EFA confirms presence of one higher order factor. Study 3-CFA performed using ULS estimation method for Higher order model provides empirical support for the PMCT scale having adequate model fit Chi.Sq. = 142.29, df = 24, GFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, RFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.05. The 9-item scale possesses satisfactory internal consistency reliability alpha (Study 2 = 0.80, Study 3 = 0.77) and composite reliability omega (Study 2 = 0.79, Study3 = 0.77). This paper contributes a reliable and valid psychometric tool for measuring Perceived Military to Civilian Transition for Indian Ex-servicemen.


military to civilian transition; military retirement; ex-servicemen; veterans; scale development; Indian ex-servicemen

Full Text:



1. Blackburn D. Transitioning from military to civilian life: examining the final step in a military career. Canadian Military Journal. 2016, 16(4): 53–61.

2. McNeil JS, Giffen MB. Military Retirement: The Retirement Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1967, 123(7): 848-854. doi: 10.1176/ajp.123.7.848

3. Sharma MR, Jain D. Resettlement Problems of Ex-Servicemen in India: A Critical Study. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). Published online July 2020. doi: 10.1109/worlds450073.2020.9210402

4. Shields DM, Kuhl D, Lutz K, et al. Mental Health and Well- Being of Military Veterans during Military to Civilian Transition: Review and Analysis of the Recent Literature. Vancouver BC; 2016.

5. Maharajan K, Krishnaveni R. Managing the Migration from Military to Civil Society. Armed Forces & Society. 2016, 42(3): 605-625. doi: 10.1177/0095327x16629160

6. Burtin O. The History of veterans’ policy in the United States. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung. 2020, 45(2(172)): 239–260.

7. Indian Soldier’s Board .Indian Soldier’s Board Report for the year ending the 31st March 1931.; 1931.

8. McNeil JS, Giffen MB. The Social Impact of Military Retirement. Social Casework. 1965, 46(4): 203-207. doi: 10.1177/104438946504600402

9. Parliamentary Committee Reports India. Committee on Defence Thirty Third Report on Resettlement of Ex-Servicemen. Parliamentary Committee Reports India; 2017.

10. McCaslin SE, Becket-Davenport C, Dinh JV, et al. Military acculturation and readjustment to the civilian context. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2021, 13(6): 611-620. doi: 10.1037/tra0000999

11. Sharma N, Rishi P. The Effect of Retirement on Lifestyle, Well-being and Ability to Cope in Indian Army. Journal of Organization and Human Behaviour. 2015, 4(1). doi: 10.21863/johb/2015.4.1.005

12. Hollingshead AB. Adjustment to Military Life. American Journal of Sociology. 1946, 51(5): 439-447. doi: 10.1086/219855

13. Barnao C. Military training. group, culture, total institution, and torture. Italian Sociological Review. 2019, 9(2): 289–304 10.13136/isr.v9i2.281

14. Misra P, Singh V. Exploring the Impact of Parental Military Deployment/Field Posting on Adolescents in Indian Military Families. Psychological Studies. 2014, 59(1): 36-43. doi: 10.1007/s12646-013-0224-8

15. Segal MW, Lane MD, Fisher AG. Conceptual Model of Military Career and Family Life Course Events, Intersections, and Effects on Well-Being. Military Behavioral Health. 2015, 3(2): 95-107. doi: 10.1080/21635781.2015.1009212

16. Maharajan K, Krishnaveni R. Inclusive management of ex-servicemen in India: Satisfaction of air force veterans from resettlement facilities with special reference to Tamil Nadu. IIMB Management Review. 2017, 29(1): 5-17. doi: 10.1016/j.iimb.2016.11.001

17. Stull F, Kirchner M, Herd A. Learning Challenges Faced by Transitioning Military Service Members: Voices of Militray Transition Counsellors. Journal of Military Learning, 2020, 36–56.

18. Verma R. Undeclared Social Bracketing of Ex-Soldiers: A Potential Bottleneck for Their Successful Transition. International Journal of Indian Psychology. 2016, 3(3). doi: 10.25215/0303.028

19. Malhotra V, Malhotra VM, Kaur S, Cheema R. Medico-social challenges of ex-serviceman and their spouse: a cross-sectional study in Punjab. Public Health Review: International Journal of Public Health Research. 2016, 3(4): 131-139. doi: 10.17511/ijphr.2016.i4.01

20. Sayer AN, Frazier P, Orazem RJ, et al. Military to Civilian Questionnaire: A Measure of Post deployment Community Reintegration Difficulty Among Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CareComplicated. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2011, 00(1): 1–11.

21. Vogt D, Taverna EC, Nillni YI, et al. Development and Validation of a Tool to Assess Military Veterans’ Status, Functioning, and Satisfaction with Key Aspects of their Lives. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. 2019, 11(2): 328-349. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12161

22. Weiss EL, Rubin A, Graeser N. Transitioning to Civilian Life Scale (TCLS): Development, Reliability, and Validity. Military Behavioral Health. 2019, 7(1): 57-63. doi: 10.1080/21635781.2018.1540317

23. Verma R, Singh R. Last held military rank and wellbeing (psychological distress) of army ex-servicemen (non-commissioned officers). International Journal of Indian Psychology. 2016, 3(4). doi: 10.25215/0304.135

24. Williams B, Onsman A, Brown T. Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Five-Step Guide for Novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine. 2010, 8: 1-13. doi: 10.33151/ajp.8.3.93

(244 Abstract Views, 94 PDF Downloads)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Anirudh Shidganesh, Ram Manohar Singh

License URL: