Open Journal Systems

Mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship of career calling, happiness, and engagement

Divya Sahu, Badri Bajaj

Article ID: 2568
Vol 9, Issue 7, 2024, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 0 (Abstract) 0 (PDF)

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to examine the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship of career calling with happiness and engagement. A purposive and judgmental sampling technique was utilised to collect data from a sample of 300 higher education teachers from different universities in India. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used to analyse the correlations among career calling, happiness, engagement, and psychological capital. Correlational results showed that study variables career calling, psychological capital, happiness, and engagement were positively correlated. Structure equation modelling (SEM) technique was used to investigate mediating role of psychological capital between the relationship of career calling with happiness, and engagement. The results of the SEM analysis showed that psychological capital fully mediated the relationship of career calling and happiness and partially mediated the relationship of career calling with engagement. The findings indicated that psychological capital significantly impacted the relationship among career calling, happiness, and engagement. This study contributes to the proposed mechanisms underlying the association between career calling, happiness, and engagement. The study concludes with implications, and future research in the domain of career calling.


Keywords

career calling, psychological capital, happiness, engagement

Full Text:

PDF



References

1. Dik BJ, Shimizu AB. Multiple Meanings of Calling: Next Steps for Studying an Evolving Construct. Journal of Career Assessment 2018; 27(2): 323–36. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072717748676

2. Wrzesniewski A, McCauley C, Rozin P, Schwartz B. Jobs, Careers, and Callings: People’s Relations to Their Work. Journal of Research in Personality [Internet]. 1997;31(1):21–33. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.1997.2162

3. Weber M. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Kalberg S, editor. 2013; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315063645

4. Thompson JA, Bunderson JS. Research on Work as a Calling…and How to Make It Matter. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior [Internet]. 2019;6(1):421–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012218-015140

5. Bryant R, Lysova EI, Khapova SN. Calling for a meaningful contribution? Bridging contributing to society with motivation theory. Frontiers in Psychology [Internet]. 2023;14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1186547

6. Duffy RD, Bott EM, Allan BA, Torrey CL, Dik BJ. Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology [Internet]. 2012;59(1):50–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026129

7. Duffy RD, Autin KL. Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Journal of Counseling Psychology [Internet]. 2013;60(2):219–27. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031934

8. Duffy RD, England JW, Douglass RP, Autin KL, Allan BA. Perceiving a calling and well-being: Motivation and access to opportunity as moderators. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2017;98:127–37. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.11.003

9. Yang C, Chen A. The Double-Edged Sword Effects of Career Calling on Occupational Embeddedness: Mediating Roles of Work–Family Conflict and Career Adaptability. Asian Nursing Research [Internet]. 2020 Dec;14(5):338–44. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2020.09.005

10. Dik BJ, Duffy RD, Eldridge BM. Calling and vocation in career counseling: Recommendations for promoting meaningful work. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice [Internet]. 2009 Dec;40(6):625–32. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015547

11. Duffy RD, Allan BA, Dik BJ. The presence of a calling and academic satisfaction: Examining potential mediators. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2011 Aug;79(1):74–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.11.001

12. Xie B, Xia M, Xin X, Zhou W. Linking calling to work engagement and subjective career success: The perspective of career construction theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2016;94:70–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.02.011

13. Duffy RD, Sedlacek WE. The Salience of a Career Calling Among College Students: Exploring Group Differences and Links to Religiousness, Life Meaning, and Life Satisfaction. The Career Development Quarterly [Internet]. 2010 Sep;59(1):27–41. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2010.tb00128.x

14. Richardson PW, Watt† HMG. Who Chooses Teaching and Why? Profiling Characteristics and Motivations Across Three Australian Universities. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education [Internet]. 2006 Mar;34(1):27–56. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13598660500480290

15. Ecker DL. The Calling Gap: Investigating Belief and Fulfillment of Calling for Pastors. Seattle Pacific University; 2018.

16. Hagmaier T, Abele AE. The multidimensionality of calling: Conceptualization, measurement and a bicultural perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2012 Aug;81(1):39–51. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.04.001

17. Duffy RD, Dik BJ, Douglass RP, England JW, Velez BL. Work as a calling: A theoretical model. Journal of Counseling Psychology [Internet]. 2018 Jul;65(4):423–39. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000276

18. Nguyen TD, Nguyen TTM. Psychological Capital, Quality of Work Life, and Quality of Life of Marketers. Journal of Macromarketing [Internet]. 2011 Sep 22;32(1):87–95. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0276146711422065

19. Smithikrai C. Antecedents and consequences of work engagement among thai employees. The Journal of Behavioral Science. 2019;14(3):14–31. Available from: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4538-589

20. Saks AM, Gruman JA. What Do We Really Know About Employee Engagement? Human Resource Development Quarterly [Internet]. 2014 Jun;25(2):155–82. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21187

21. Abid G, Sajjad I, Elahi NS, Farooqi S, Nisar A. The influence of prosocial motivation and civility on work engagement: The mediating role of thriving at work. Harkins J, editor. Cogent Business & Management [Internet]. 2018 Jan 1;5(1):1493712. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2018.1493712

22. Cooper-Thomas HD, Paterson NL, Stadler MJ, Saks AM. The relative importance of proactive behaviors and outcomes for predicting newcomer learning, well-being, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2014 Jun;84(3):318–31. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.02.007

23. Kolodinsky RW, Ritchie WJ, Kuna WA. Meaningful engagement: Impacts of a ‘calling’ work orientation and perceived leadership support. Journal of Management & Organization [Internet]. 2017 Apr 17;24(3):406–23. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.19

24. Erum H, Abid G, Contreras F. THE CALLING OF EMPLOYEES AND WORK ENGAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF FLOURISHING AT WORK. Business, Management and Education [Internet]. 2020 Feb 24;18(1):1–13. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/bme.2020.11430

25. Allan BA, Duffy RD. Examining Moderators of Signature Strengths Use and Well-being: Calling and Signature Strengths Level. Journal of Happiness Studies [Internet]. 2013 Mar 5;15(2):323–37. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9424-0

26. Avey JB, Wernsing TS, Luthans F. Can Positive Employees Help Positive Organizational Change? Impact of Psychological Capital and Emotions on Relevant Attitudes and Behaviors. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science [Internet]. 2008 Mar;44(1):48–70. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886307311470

27. Nigah N, Davis AJ, Hurrell SA. The Impact of Buddying on Psychological Capital and Work Engagement: An Empirical Study of Socialization in the Professional Services Sector. Thunderbird International Business Review [Internet]. 2012 Oct 23;54(6):891–905. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tie.21510

28. Hsing-Ming L, Mei-Ju C, Chia-Hui C, Ho-Tang W. The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Professional Commitment of Preschool Teachers: The Moderating Role of Working Years. Universal Journal of Educational Research [Internet]. 2017 May;5(5):891–900. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050521

29. Xie B, Zhou W, Huang JL, Xia M. Using goal facilitation theory to explain the relationships between calling and organization-directed citizenship behavior and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2017 Jun; 100:78–87. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.03.001

30. Sawhney G, Britt TW, Wilson C. Perceiving a Calling as a Predictor of Future Work Attitudes: The Moderating Role of Meaningful Work. Journal of Career Assessment [Internet]. 2019 May 21;28(2):187–201. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072719848981

31. Ahn J, Dik BJ, Hornback R. The experience of career change driven by a sense of calling: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2017 Oct; 102: 48–62. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.07.003

32. Dik BJ, Duffy RD. Calling and Vocation at Work. The Counseling Psychologist [Internet]. 2007 Oct 4;37(3):424–50. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000008316430

33. Diener E. Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin [Internet]. 1984;95(3):542–75. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.95.3.542

34. Higgs M, Dulewicz V. Antecedents of well-being: a study to examine the extent to which personality and emotional intelligence contribute to well-being. The International Journal of Human Resource Management [Internet]. 2013 Jul 12;25(5):718–35. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.815253

35. Huta V, Waterman AS. Eudaimonia and Its Distinction from Hedonia: Developing a Classification and Terminology for Understanding Conceptual and Operational Definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies [Internet]. 2013 Dec 29;15(6):1425–56. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9485-0

36. Hirschi A, Herrmann A. Vocational Identity Achievement as a Mediator of Presence of Calling and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment [Internet]. 2012 Feb 19;20(3):309–21. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072711436158

37. Lee KJ. Sense of calling and career satisfaction of hotel frontline employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management [Internet]. 2016 Feb 8;28(2):346–65. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-01-2014-0026

38. Rossier J, Zecca G, Stauffer SD, Maggiori C, Dauwalder JP. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-speaking Swiss sample: Psychometric properties and relationships to personality and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2012 Jun;80(3):734–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.01.004

39. Sattar MA, Rasheed MI, Khan IU, Tariq H, Iqbal J. Why adaptable individuals perform better: The role of orientation to happiness. Australian Journal of Career Development [Internet]. 2017 Oct;26(3):134–41. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1038416217724516

40. Duffy RD, Dik BJ, Steger MF. Calling and work-related outcomes: Career commitment as a mediator. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2011 Apr;78(2):210–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.09.013

41. Duffy RD, Allan BA, Bott EM. Calling and Life Satisfaction Among Undergraduate Students: Investigating Mediators and Moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies [Internet]. 2011 May 5;13(3):469–79. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-011-9274-6

42. Duffy RD, Dik BJ. Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going? Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2013 Dec;83(3):428–36. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.006

43. Duffy RD, Allan BA, Bott EM. Calling and Life Satisfaction Among Undergraduate Students: Investigating Mediators and Moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies [Internet]. 2011 May 5;13(3):469–79. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-011-9274-6

44. Salas-Vallina A, Alegre J. Happiness at work: Developing a shorter measure. Journal of Management & amp; Organization [Internet]. 2018 May 28;27(3):460–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2018.24

45. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB. Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi‐sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior [Internet]. 2004 Mar 30;25(3):293–315. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.248

46. Dalla Rosa A, Vianello M, Galliani E. Career calling: scale validation and mediation effects on work-related outcomes. Tpm. Testing, psychometrics, methodology in applied psychology. 2021;28(2):191–206. https://dx.doi.org/10.4473/TPM28.2.3

47. Ziedelis A. Perceived Calling and Work Engagement Among Nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research [Internet]. 2018 Mar 29;41(6):816–33. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945918767631

48. Bunderson JS, Thompson JA. The Call of the Wild: Zookeepers, Callings, and the Double-edged Sword of Deeply Meaningful Work. Administrative Science Quarterly [Internet]. 2009 Mar;54(1):32–57. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2189/asqu.2009.54.1.32

49. Dobrow SR, Tosti‐Kharas J. Calling: the development of a scale Measure. Personnel Psychology [Internet]. 2011 Nov 20;64(4):1001–49. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01234.x

50. Luthans F, Youssef CM, Avolio BJ. Psychological capital and beyond. Oxford University Press, USA; 2015.

51. Luthans F, Youssef-Morgan CM. Psychological Capital: An Evidence-Based Positive Approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior [Internet]. 2017 Mar 21;4(1):339–66. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113324

52. Hirschi A. Callings in career: A typological approach to essential and optional components. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2011 Aug;79(1):60–73. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.11.002

53. Duffy RD, Sedlacek WE. The presence of and search for a calling: Connections to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2007 Jun;70(3):590 601. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.03.007

54. Huang L, Zhang T. Perceived Social Support, Psychological Capital, and Subjective Well-Being among College Students in the Context of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher [Internet]. 2021 Aug 6;31(5):563–74. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00608-3

55. Hall DT, Chandler DE. Psychological success: When the career is acalling. Journal of Organizational Behavior [Internet]. 2005 Feb 3;26(2):155–76. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.301

56. Elangovan AR, Pinder CC, McLean M. Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2010 Jun;76(3):428–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.009

57. Xu Q, Wang M, Wu Y, Qin K, Li Y, You X, et al. Linkage of calling and burnout among Chinese airline pilots: the role of psychological capital and organizational identification. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics [Internet]. 2022 Jun 29;29(2):902–10. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2022.2086756

58. Carver CS, Scheier MF, Segerstrom SC. Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review [Internet]. 2010 Nov;30(7):879–89. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006

59. Coetzee M, Schreuder D. Proactive career self-management: exploring links among psychosocial career attributes and adaptability resources. South African Journal of Psychology [Internet]. 2017 Jul 21;48(2):206–18. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0081246317719646

60. Soykan A, Gardner D, Edwards T. Subjective wellbeing in New Zealand teachers: An examination of the role of psychological capital. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools [Internet]. 2019 Jun 17;29(2):130–8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2019.14

61. Yarhosseinei M, Avari N, Shirazi S, Hadadian M, Javidan L, Mousavi S. The Efficacy of Psychological Capital Intervention (PCI) on mental health and subjective well-being in Adolescences. Preventive Counseling. 2022;3(4):71–82. 10.22098/JPC.2022.10588.1096

62. Jiang S. Psychological well-being and distress in adolescents: An investigation into associations with poverty, peer victimization, and self-esteem. Children and Youth Services Review [Internet]. 2020 Apr;111: 104824. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104824

63. Zhou ZK, Liu QQ, Niu GF, Sun XJ, Fan CY. Bullying victimization and depression in Chinese children: A moderated mediation model of resilience and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences [Internet]. 2017 Jan;104: 137–42. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.040

64. Eder P, Eisenberger R. Perceived Organizational Support: Reducing the Negative Influence of Coworker Withdrawal Behavior. Journal of Management [Internet]. 2007 Oct 26;34(1):55–68. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206307309259

65. Martínez IM, Youssef-Morgan CM, Chambel MJ, Marques-Pinto A. Antecedents of academic performance of university students: academic engagement and psychological capital resources. Educational Psychology [Internet]. 2019 Jun 18;39(8):1047–67. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2019.1623382

66. Joo BK, Lee I. Workplace happiness: work engagement, career satisfaction, and subjective well-being. Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship [Internet]. 2017 Aug 7;5(2):206–21. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ebhrm-04-2015-0011

67. Safavi HP, Karatepe OM. High-performance work practices and hotel employee outcomes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management [Internet]. 2018 Feb 12;30(2):1112–33. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-07-2016-0367

68. Tsaur SH, Hsu FS, Lin H. Workplace fun and work engagement in tourism and hospitality: The role of psychological capital. International Journal of Hospitality Management [Internet]. 2019 Aug; 81:131–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.03.016

69. Choi YE, Cho E, Jung HJ, Sohn YW. Calling as a Predictor of Life Satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment [Internet]. 2017 Aug 3;26(4):567–82. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072717723092

70. Wu WL, Lee YC. How Spiritual Leadership Boosts Nurses’ Work Engagement: The Mediating Roles of Calling and Psychological Capital. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Sep 1;17(17):6364. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176364

71. Luthans F, Avey JB, Avolio BJ, Peterson SJ. The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly [Internet]. 2010 Mar;21(1):41–67. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.20034

72. Keyes CLM. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist [Internet]. 2007;62(2):95–108. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.62.2.95

73. Tschannen-Moran M, Hoy AW. The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education [Internet]. 2007 Aug;23(6):944–56. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.05.003

74. Snyder CR, Sympson SC, Ybasco FC, Borders TF, Babyak MA, Higgins RL. Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology [Internet]. 1996;70(2):321–35. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.70.2.321

75. Luthans F, Youssef CM, Avolio BJ. Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge. 2007. 1–256 p. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187526.001.0001

76. Lyubomirsky S, Lepper HS. A measure of subjective happiness: preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research. 1999;46(2):137–55. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006824100041

77. Haynes SN, Richard DCS, Kubany ES. Content validity in psychological assessment: A functional approach to concepts and methods. Psychological Assessment [Internet]. 1995;7(3):238–47. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1040-3590.7.3.238

78. Polit DF, Beck CT. The content validity index: Are you sure you know what’s being reported? critique and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health [Internet]. 2006;29(5):489–97. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.20147

79. Zikmund WG, Babin BJ, Carr JC, Griffin M. Business research methods. Cengage learning; 2013. https://lccn.loc.gov/83014071

80. Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal [Internet]. 1999 Jan;6(1):1–55. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

81. Spector PE. Do Not Cross Me: Optimizing the Use of Cross-Sectional Designs. Journal of Business and Psychology [Internet]. 2019 Jan 7;34(2):125–37. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-018-09613-8

82. Iverson RD, Maguire C. The Relationship between Job and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from a Remote Mining Community. Human Relations [Internet]. 2000 Jun;53(6):807–39. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726700536003

83. Aulakh PS, Gencturk EF. International Principal–Agent Relationships. Industrial Marketing Management [Internet]. 2000 Nov;29(6):521–38. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0019-8501(00)00126-7

84. Harman HH. Mathai AM. Modern Factor Analysis. by Harry H. Harman. (2nd ed., revised.) The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London (1967). xx+474 pp. Canadian Mathematical Bulletin [Internet]. 1970 Jun;13(2):291–2. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0008439500031799

85. MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research [Internet]. 2004 Jan;39(1):99–128. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4

86. Allan BA, Duffy RD. Calling, Goals, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment [Internet]. 2013 Aug 5;22(3):451–64. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072713498574

87. Carver CS, Scheier MF, Segerstrom SC. Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review [Internet]. 2010 Nov;30(7):879–89. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006

88. Joo BK, Lee I. Workplace happiness: work engagement, career satisfaction, and subjective well-being. Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship [Internet]. 2017 Aug 7;5(2):206–21. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ebhrm-04-2015-0011

89. Herbell K, Bustos-Chaves K. Job satisfaction, calling, life satisfaction, and happiness among university faculty, staff, and administrators. Epistimi, Capital University’s Undergraduate Research Journal. 2014;

90. Zhao X, Wu K, Sun B, Li W. Teacher career calling reduces burnout: The mediation effects of work engagement and psychological capital. Frontiers in Psychology [Internet]. 2022 Nov 3;13. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.988467

91. Peng J, Zhang J, Zheng L, Guo H, Miao D, Fang P. Career Calling and Job Satisfaction in Army Officers: A Multiple Mediating Model Analysis. Psychological Reports [Internet]. 2019 Jul 15;123(6):2459–78. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033294119862990

92. Van Zyl LE, Deacon E, Rothmann S. Towards happiness: Experiences of work-role fit, meaningfulness and work engagement of industrial/organisational psychologists in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology [Internet]. 2010 Mar 26;36(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.890

93. Kawalya C, Munene JC, Ntayi J, Kagaari J, Mafabi S, Kasekende F. Psychological capital and happiness at the workplace: The mediating role of flow experience. Belso-Martinez A, editor. Cogent Business & Management [Internet]. 2019 Jan;6(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2019.1685060

94. Sweetman D, Luthans F. The power of positive psychology: Psychological capital and work engagement. Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research. 2010;54:68. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203853047

95. LASCHINGER HKS. Job and career satisfaction and turnover intentions of newly graduated nurses. Journal of Nursing Management [Internet]. 2011 Oct 17;20(4):472–84. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01293.x

96. Wang S, Liu Y. Impact of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses’ work engagement: test of structural equation modelling. Journal of Nursing Management [Internet]. 2013 Sep 23;23(3):287–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12124

97. Ngo H yue, Foley S, Ji MS, Loi R. Linking Gender Role Orientation to Career Success: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital. Academy of Management Proceedings [Internet]. 2012 Jul;2012(1):15301. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2012.15301abstract

98. Baluku MM, Mugabi EN, Nansamba J, Matagi L, Onderi P, Otto K. Psychological Capital and Career Outcomes among Final Year University Students: the Mediating Role of Career Engagement and Perceived Employability. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology [Internet]. 2020 May 25;6(1):55–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41042-020-00040-w

99. Ersoy A, Ehtiyar R. Happiness at work. Developments in Social Sciences. 2017;32:375–86.

100.

101. Abid G, Zahra I, Ahmed A. Promoting thriving at work and waning turnover intention: A relational perspective. Future Business Journal [Internet]. 2016 Dec;2(2):127–37. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2016.08.001

102. Fisher CD. Happiness at Work. International Journal of Management Reviews [Internet]. 2010 Nov 5;12(4):384–412. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00270.x

103. Robertson IT, Cooper CL, Johnson S. Well-being: Productivity and happiness at work. Vol. 3. Springer; 2011. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230306738

104. Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Podsakoff NP. Sources of Method Bias in Social Science Research and Recommendations on How to Control It. Annual Review of Psychology [Internet]. 2012 Jan 10;63(1):539–69. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

105. Chen CY, Li CI. Assessing the spiritual leadership effectiveness: The contribution of follower’s self-concept and preliminary tests for moderation of culture and managerial position. The Leadership Quarterly [Internet]. 2013 Feb;24(1):240–55. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.11.004

106. Yang M, Fry LouisW. The role of spiritual leadership in reducing healthcare worker burnout. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion [Internet]. 2018 Aug 8;15(4):305–24. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2018.1482562

107. Yang F, Huang X, Wu L. Experiencing meaningfulness climate in teams: How spiritual leadership enhances team effectiveness when facing uncertain tasks. Human Resource Management [Internet]. 2018 Oct 4;58(2):155–68. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21943

108. Bakker AB, Schaufeli WB. Positive organizational behavior: engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior [Internet]. 2008 Jan 15;29(2):147–54. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.515

109. Biemann T, Zacher H, Feldman DC. Career patterns: A twenty-year panel study. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2012 Oct;81(2):159–70. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.06.003

110. Johnston CS, Luciano EC, Maggiori C, Ruch W, Rossier J. Validation of the German version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale and its relation to orientations to happiness and work stress. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2013 Dec;83(3):295–304. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.002


DOI: https://doi.org/10.59429/esp.v9i7.6138
(0 Abstract Views, 0 PDF Downloads)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2024 Divya Sahu, Badri Bajaj

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.